Matt Groening life and biography

Matt Groening picture, image, poster

Matt Groening biography

Date of birth : 1954-02-15
Date of death : -
Birthplace : Portland, Oregon, U.S.
Nationality : American
Category : Arts and Entertainment
Last modified : 2010-08-31
Credited as : Writer and cartoonist, wrotetv series "The Simpsons", and "Futurama"

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Matthew Abram "Matt" Groening, also known as Matthew Groening, Matthew Akbar Groening born February 15, 1954 in Portland, Oregon, United States is an American writer, cartoonist, business executive and screenwriter. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell as well as two successful television series, The Simpsons and Futurama.

"I had a very typical childhood," said Matt Groening in a San Jose Mercury News article by Michael Oricchio. "The only difference was that I took notes and vowed never to forget what it was like." Groening's vow helped drive him into cartooning, where he has been taking revenge on his childhood tormentors and a lot of other pretentious people for most of his adult life. In his Life in Hell comic strip and The Simpsons animated television series, Groening lampoons authority figures from playground bullies to classroom and office tyrants, viewing life through the eyes of children and adults who feel doomed, overpowered, or defiantly obnoxious. His best-known creation is Bart Simpson, who has his adventures chronicled on the most successful prime-time animated series since The Flintstones. The Simpsons went on to win ten Emmy and a slew of other awards, earn $500 million in merchandising, air in over 70 countries, become America's longest-running sitcom, and is set to star in a feature film, The Simpsons Movie, in 2000. For a time, students across America shocked their teachers by wearing T-shirts that display the Bart attitude: "'Underachiever'--And proud of it, man!" Futurama, Groening's futuristic series that debuted on Fox in 1999, was a gauge of the cartoonist's success--he was allowed to indulge his long-time dream of creating a science-fiction show and air it on Fox television, part of one of the most known entertainment networks in the world, Twentieth Century Fox.

Groening was born and raised in Portland, Oregon. Strangely, the names of his family resemble those of the Simpson clan, including father Homer, mother Margaret, and sisters Lisa and Maggie. Groening now suggests that the coincidence was an inside joke that got out of hand. "My whole family was smart and funny," he told Jim Sullivan in the Boston Globe, "where the Simpsons are stupid and funny." Unlike Bart Simpson's condescending attitude towards Homer, Groening considered his father the "hippest" dad in the neighborhood: a man who, during the conformist 1950s, sought out such unusual jobs as cartoonist and creator of short films. Because of his work, Homer Groening subscribed to a huge range of general-interest magazines; accordingly, Matt was gazing at the cartoons in the New Yorker and Punch even before he could read. Soon he was doodling like his dad.

The closest resemblance between the Simpsons and the Groenings lies in the bickering between siblings. As the third child of five, Matt was picked on by an older brother and sister, and he, in turn, picked on his two younger sisters. For Groening such childhood memories are amazingly vivid--even intense. "I really do remember being in my crib and being bathed in the sink," he declared in the Los Angeles Times. "I remember being that small. At the time, I thought everything was dramatic. . . . Adults have forgotten how scary it is."

Tough Times in School

Scariest of all for Groening was elementary school. He found it a rigid, humorless, uncreative place that had no use for a child whose talent was doodling. "I could understand getting sent to the principal's office for dropping an encyclopedia out the window, but I couldn't understand them ripping my cartoons up," he continued. To console himself Groening started keeping a diary in the fifth grade. That way, in years to come, he could examine the record and decide if he'd been right to rebel.

Resisting all threats and pleas, Groening remained a nonconformist. He became a fan of satirical comics like Walt Kelly's Pogo and the notorious Mad magazine. When Jack and Jill magazine invited readers to submit their own ending to a Halloween story, Groening won a prize for his morbid finale: a boy dies from a bump on the head and swoops down from the attic once a year to join his family for dinner. By high school Groening began to hit his stride. He wrote and cartooned for the school newspaper, hung out with antiwar students from a nearby college, and, with fellow misfits from his high school, formed a sarcastic political party called Teens for Decency and got himself elected student body president. "You are what you are," he said in the Los Angeles Times, "basically despite school."

When it came time for college, Groening applied to only two: far-off Harvard University (he didn't make it) and nearby Evergreen State in Olympia, Washington. Founded in the late 1960s, Evergreen was a classic hippie school with no tests, no grades, and no classes (they were called seminars). Groening, who was really too conservative to be a hippie, responded to the freedom of Evergreen with a burst of self-discipline. Since he didn't see cartooning as a viable career, he decided to be a writer and soon became editor of the student newspaper. There he met Lynda Barry, an aspiring artist who cartooned on the side and who later created the best-selling strip Ernie Pook's Comeek. "I had been trying to make other people laugh and I found out by looking at Lynda's cartoons that if you make yourself laugh, it's generally good for other people as well," Groening told Richard Harrington in the Washington Post. He decided to publish some of Barry's cartoons in the paper and, inspired by her example, published some of his own as well. This didn't change Groening's plans, however: "I didn't expect there to be an audience for what I was drawing because I didn't see anything drawn that crummy. There was nothing else as crude."

A Frustrated Writer

Eager for a writing job after graduation, Groening moved to an apartment in Los Angeles, but nothing went right for him. The only writing job that materialized was as ghostwriter/chauffeur to a forgotten, eighty-eight-year-old Hollywood filmmaker who was trying to compose his memoirs. Other memorable jobs included record-store clerk, copy-shop clerk, graveyard landscaper, and dishwasher in a convalescent home. Faced with the prospect of explaining his lack of success to folks back home, Groening decided to entertain them with his cartoons instead. His life in Los Angeles was thus reborn as Life in Hell, the chronicle of a frustrated, harassed-looking rabbit named Binky. The first Life in Hell comic strips were run off on photocopiers, stapled into booklets, and mailed by Groening to old friends. Soon he tried selling some of the booklets to punk patrons of the record store where he worked. "The punks' reactions were pretty much either they liked it or they tore it up," he told Newsweek contributor Jennifer Foote, "which could have meant they liked it too."

Wet magazine, a pioneer of off-the-wall New Wave graphics, liked the strip enough to run several installments in 1978. Groening also tried to interest both of Los Angeles's alternative weeklies in his work, and in 1979 he landed a job with the Los Angeles Reader. Within a year Life in Hell was a weekly feature of the Reader, and Groening's job soon expanded into editor and rock music columnist. As originally seen in the Reader, Life in Hell was different from the comic strip now popularized in books and calendars; Binky the rabbit "was really hostile, ranting and raving, the way I felt," Groening explained in a Rolling Stone article by Tish Hamilton. "After a year of doing the comic strip and not getting much response, I decided to make the rabbit a victim instead of an aggressor. And the second I made the rabbit a victim, people started liking the comic strip. The more tragedies that befell this poor little rodent, the more positive response I got."

Binky took his present-day form: a lonely, beleaguered office worker with a nightmarish love life that results in his having an illegitimate son. The son, Bongo, is a troubled school-aged rabbit with only one ear. With the addition of Sheba, Binky's girlfriend (and not Bongo's mother), Groening had a cast of characters on whom he could inflict the humiliations of everyday life, including love, work, and childhood. When a girlfriend dumped Groening, for instance, he responded with "Love Is Hell," a thirteen-part comic-strip miniseries that told readers about the nine types of boyfriends (such as Old Man Grumpus), nine types of girlfriends (Ms. Vaguely Dissatisfied), and nine types of relationships (Sourballs vs. The World). He also wrote about a more pressing frustration: having an office job. "Isn't It About Time You Quit Your Lousy Job?" asked one of Groening's favorite strips. "Wake up, chumply. You're not getting any younger. The clock is ticking. You can't just sit there in your cubbyhole while life passes you by."

Groening might still be writing for the Reader if not for Deborah Caplan, who worked in the advertising department and was quick to see his potential. "It didn't take many sales calls before I realized that Groening's comic strip was the major drawing card of the newspaper," she told Joanne Kaufman in People magazine. Caplan fell in love with Groening, and, as an added bonus, she helped organize his life. In the mid-1980s Groening and Caplan quit their jobs and formed the Life in Hell Cartoon Company and Acme Features Syndicate, which syndicated the comic strip and sold all kinds of hell-related products, from posters to T-shirts to coffee mugs. Even before The Simpsons became a mass-market phenomenon, the Life in Hell Cartoon Company was pulling down a six-figure income. "Everyone I know goes, 'Well, if I had a Deborah, I could be a success, too,'" he said in the Los Angeles Times. "And they're right." The pair was married in 1986, and figurines of Binky and Sheba topped the wedding cake.

The boom in hell made Groening more ambitious, leading to a string of comic miniseries and cartoon books. The first book, Love Is Hell, was privately published by Caplan in 1984 and sold more than twenty thousand copies; subsequent books are titled Work Is Hell, School Is Hell, and Childhood Is Hell. To gear up for the School Is Hell series, Groening ransacked high school dumpsters for the notebooks and papers that students toss out at the end of the year. The final product surveyed such topics as "Trouble: Getting In and Weaseling Your Way Out" and "How to Drive a Deserving Teacher Crazy." Childhood Is Hell, based in part on Groening's fifth-grade diary, included a "Childhood Trauma Checklist" and a tribute to "Your Pal the TV Set." For variety Groening gave an increasing role in Life in Hell to gay entrepreneurs Akbar and Jeff, whose empty grins were somehow as creepy as Binky and Bongo's frowns. Los Angeles Times Book Review critic Charles Solomon noted that while Groening's artwork is not great in the traditional sense, it serves as a vehicle for good writing and sharp wit. "Groening," Solomon declared, "is one of the funniest and most original cartoonists working in the comics today."

The increasing popularity of Groening's "Hell" cartoon led to inquiries from the television industry, which found him a tough bargainer. When asked about potential projects, he told Sullivan, "I'd talk about how bad TV cartoons were and that I'd like to do something with the same standards as [the 1960s cult favorite] 'Rocky and Bullwinkle'--great writing, great voices, great music. They got all cold and distant after that and claimed that 'Rocky and Bullwinkle' was a failure because it only appealed to smart kids." Groening, who felt that TV viewers were ready again for something like smart animation, held tight. Finally he got an offer from James L. Brooks, the noted producer and writer for such television programs as The Mary Tyler Moore Show and Taxi and movies like Terms of Endearment who was now at the adventurous new Fox television network. At first the pair planned to do an animated version of the comic strip, but then Fox laid down its terms: Groening must surrender all legal rights to the characters. Instead Groening sold Fox the concept for a whole new animated show, with human characters who were nearly as frazzled as his rabbits--"a messed-up American family," as he put it. The Simpsons were born.

Scores Big with The Simpsons

The Simpsons are a blue-collar clan who live in the mythical town of Springfield--the same hometown as the Andersons, the well-adjusted television family of the 1950s comedy Father Knows Best. The Simpsons, however, look like somebody's parody of a happy television family. Ten-year-old Bart is irreverent, irrepressible, and usually in trouble. He cheats on tests, sneaks into movies, and never misses a chance to one-up his father. Homer is fat, bald, stupid, and often grumpy--just a regular guy. He works at a nuclear power plant, where his blunders often put Springfield on the edge of annihilation. Marge Simpson, wife and mother, is crowned by an enormous blue beehive hairdo. She holds the family together with kindhearted wisdom, although sometimes her advice is a little off target. Lisa is an eight-year-old genius who's full of common sense, but vaguely smug. And Baby Maggie "isn't TV-baby-cute; she's just there, all wide eyes and sucking noises," wrote Ken Tucker in Entertainment Weekly. "At its heart this is guerrilla TV," said Tucker's colleague Joe Rhodes--"a wicked satire masquerading as a prime-time cartoon."

As a television series, The Simpsons started small: it was a supplement to another prime-time series, The Tracey Ullman Show. At first the animation spots--written, directed, and produced by Groening--were used as fifteen-second lead-ins to commercial breaks; finally it got its own ninety-second segment. There was just enough time for a joke, but the Simpsons characters were clearly established. In one segment, for instance, Marge blithely sings "Rock-a-Bye Baby" to little Maggie, who takes the words literally and imagines herself cradled in a treetop and crashing to the ground. Going to a full-length series, however, was by no means a foregone conclusion. Because animation is generally drawn by hand, it requires a lot of time and money. But an advance screening of the show impressed Fox chairman Barry Diller, and a commitment for a series was approved. After the full-length program debuted on Fox in January of 1990, it was soon one of the fifteen most-watched shows on American television--an amazing feat for a fledgling network that had yet to reach one-fifth of the country. "The Simpsons kept Fox in business in the early years," Futurama animation director Claudia Katz told writer Alex Needham for Face. Needham also commented about the effect The Simpson had on American TV culture. "In America, TV used to be so diffuse: There was no country-unifying soap, no one who watched by the whole family. The Simpsons had become this show." The Simpsons became America's longest-running sitcom.

Named one of three executive producers of The Simpsons, Groening aimed for quality. He wanted animation with enough depth to appeal to grown-ups, animation with characters so vivid that people would forget it was animation, and a situation comedy that would transcend the old sitcom formula of one-liners and easy sentiment. But beyond production values--as everyone from TV critics to sociologists agreed--The Simpsons clicked because the audience was ready for it. The show was seen as a revolt against decades of happy family sitcoms, from Father Knows Best to The Cosby Show, which projected a world that was too good to be real. As America faced a long list of stubborn social and economic woes, many of which took a toll on family life, the "messed-up" Simpsons looked surprisingly realistic.

Like many people in the audience, the Simpsons weren't fulfilled in life; they were lucky to survive it. In one episode Homer is treated like a hero for preventing a nuclear explosion, then has to admit that he pushed the right button by accident. In another plotline when playground bullies menace Bart, he does not win by taking the high road, instead, he teams up with a local gun nut and fights dirty. When he's threatened with flunking out of fourth grade, he studies pathetically hard, and he is delighted to scrape by with a "D." And when Lisa suffers from childhood depression, an old musician teaches her how to survive by playing the blues: "The blues isn't about feeling better," he confides, "it's about making other people feel worse." Yet despite all their flaws, bickering, and money troubles, the Simpsons still manage--just barely--to love each other. "Part of the Simpson appeal," Groening said in a Chicago Sun-Times article by Earnest Tucker, "is the acknowledgement that you can still love the people who drive you crazy."

The popularity of The Simpsons created a marketing tidal wave as fans scooped up as many as one million Simpsons products a day, including T-shirts, caps, bubble gum, boxer shorts, and a talking Bart doll. Not surprisingly, some authority figures did not find the Simpsons funny at all. Across America various principals, teachers, and child psychologists warned that Bart was providing a bad example to the young. Bart's foes included United States drug enforcement chief William Bennett, who backed off on his attack when he was forced to admit that he had never watched the show. Many blasted the notorious "Underachiever" T-shirt, which was banned from some classrooms. "If you read the T-shirt, it says, 'Bart Simpson, quote, underachiever, unquote,'" Groening commented to Dave Rhein in the Des Moines Register. "[Bart] has been labeled an underachiever and his response to that is that he's proud of it. He didn't call himself an underachiever. He does not aspire to be an underachiever." Besides, as the author told Mother Jones contributor Sean Elder, "Kids are smarter than a lot of adults give them credit for. I feel sorry for authority figures who are troubled by kids having fun."

Continued success for Groening came in 1993 with the founding of the comic book company Bongo Comics Group, for which he serves as publisher. The company's first titles were Simpsons Comics, Radioactive Man, Itchy & Scratchy, Bartman, and Krusty Comics. During Bongo Comics' first year of publication, the company was honored with a Diamond Gem Award for best new publisher of the year and the Will Eisner Award for best short story for "The Amazing Colossal Homer." The success of Bongo Comics ultimately led to the creation of Zongo Comics in 1994.

Introduces Futurama

By the late 1990s, with the success of The Simpsons, the door was opened to many other animated shows not necessarily made for kids. The raucous South Park debuted on Comedy Central and was wildly received, spinning off into a full-length film. MTV had a hit with Beavis and Butthead, two animated teenage losers who made rude and lewd comments over music videos, and who also starred in a feature film. Fox produced King of the Hill, yet another animated dysfunctional family somehow keeping it together while audiences laughed at their expense. So, based on his success with The Simpsons, Groening decided to indulge a long-time fantasy--he wanted to produce a science-fiction show. In 1997, he teamed up with David X. Cohen, a fellow sci-fi buff and a scriptwriter for The Simpsons who'd worked on Beavis and Butthead. The two conspired over sci-fi movies, sci-fi books by writers like Isaac Asimov and Phillip K. Dick, 1980s computer games, vintage sci-fi magazines, and old TV shows like Lost in Space and Doctor Who. What they came up with was Futurama.

"Matt Groening has seen the future, and, quite frankly," wrote Dan Snierson in Entertainment Weekly, "it looks ridiculous." A pizza delivery boy inadvertently gets frozen in 1999 and wakes up 1,000 years later. Set in the year 3000, Groening's take on the future included one-eyed and lobster-clawed aliens, jet-powered scooters, evil mega-corporations, robots and spaceships, and mobile phones implanted directly into thumbs. While Groening was inspired by sci-fi classics, Futurama also poked fun at them. The future world featured Stop'n'Drop (25 suicide booths), coin-operated prostitutes, and a state motto of, "You gotta do what you gotta do," which means doing a state-assigned job. In Groening's year 3000, people still watched The Simpsons. Like The Simpsons, Futurama featured a host of celebrity cameo appearances, only in Futurama, stars like Pamela Anderson, Dennis Rodman, Leonard Nimoy and the Beastie Boys gave voices to animated versions of their own heads, kept in jars in the "Head Museum." Its star was a lazy, lying, stealing, beer-drinking robot named Bender. "Bender gets around the censor problems. He can't be a bad role model for kids," Groening said in Face, "[h]e's a robot."

"The way I sold them the show," Groening said in Face, "was by saying, 'This is The Simpsons in the future,' and the dollar signs danced in front of their eyes." When Fox executives saw the first episode of Futurama, the dollar signs stopped dancing. Futurama, they complained, was nothing like The Simpsons. "Yes it is," Groening replied. "It's new and original." There was no way Groening could outdo The Simpsons, Groening told Snierson. "I won't. I can't. Nothing can. I just hope every review isn't 'Futurama is no Simpsons.' It's not a horse race." Despite executive worries, 19 million people watched the first episode.

More than anyone Groening was having fun. "Everybody's got a fantasy of watching television and getting annoyed with it and saying, 'Boy, if I had my own TV show, this is what I would do.' And in an extremely easy way, I have arrived at that," he told Philadelphia Inquirer writer Rip Rense. "We lucked out. I'm real comfortable now. I'm real lucky." He even has plans for a theme park, his answer to Disneyland. "It'd be great!" he told Face, "You'd have Simpsons island with a 600ft statue of Homer. They'd sell donuts and beer in his head." As happy as anyone who lives in hell can expect to be, Groening and Caplan remodeled their house near the ocean and began raising their children. He remains friends with Lynda Barry, and in many papers their comic strips run side by side. And, most of all, he has learned the true meaning of success. "It means," he told Earnest Tucker, "that people who used to beat me up in high school call me up and want to be friends."


Surname is pronounced "gray-ning" (rhymes with "raining"); born February 15, 1954, in Portland, OR; son of Homer (a filmmaker) and Margaret (a teacher) Groening; married Deborah Caplan (his manager and business partner), October 29, 1986; children: two. Education: Evergreen State College, B.A., 1977. Hobbies and other interests: Watching badly translated foreign films; nurturing ducks.


Won short story contest, Jack and Jill, 1962; Emmy Award nominations, Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, for outstanding writing in a variety program, 1987, 1988, and 1989, for The Tracey Ullman Show, and for outstanding animated program, 1990, for Christmas program The Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire; The Simpsons television program has won ten Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Animated Program in 1990, 1991, and 1995, a Peabody Award in 1997, seven Annie Awards, three Genesis Awards, three International Monitor Awards, and three Environmental Media Awards, among others.


Writer, cartoonist, and business executive. Held numerous odd jobs in Los Angeles, CA, including cemetery landscaper, dishwasher in a nursing home, clerk in recording and copy shops, and ghostwriter/chauffeur to an elderly filmmaker, 1977-79; Los Angeles Reader, Los Angeles, worked variously as circulation manager, editor, writer, cartoonist, and author of "Sound Mix" music column, 1979-84; cofounder and partner with Deborah Caplan, Life in Hell Cartoon Co. and Acme Features Syndicate, beginning in 1980s; Twentieth Century-Fox Television, Los Angeles, creator, developer, animator, director, and producer of "The Simpsons" episodes for The Tracy Ullman Show, 1987-89; Twentieth Century-Fox Television, Los Angeles, creator, developer, animator, and executive producer with James L. Brooks and Sam Simon, The Simpsons television series, 1989--, director of voice recording sessions, 1990--, and creator and executive producer of Futurama, 1999--; publisher, Bongo Comics Group, 1993--, and Zongo Comics, 1994--.

* Writings

* "Life in Hell"

* 1984: Love Is Hell, privately printed, revised edition, Pantheon, 1985.
* 1986: Work Is Hell, Pantheon.
* 1987: School Is Hell, Pantheon.
* 1988: Childhood Is Hell, Pantheon.
* 1989: Akbar and Jeff's Guide to Life, Pantheon.
* 1989: Greetings from Hell, Pantheon.
* 1990: The Big Book of Hell, Pantheon.
* 1991: With Love from Hell: A Postcard Book, HarperCollins.
* 1991: How to Go to Hell, HarperCollins.
* 1992: The Road to Hell, HarperCollins.
* 1994: Binky's Guide to Love, HarperCollins.
* 1994: Love Is Still Hell: Special Ultra-Jumbo 10th Anniversary Edition, Random House.
* 1997: The Huge Book of Hell, Penguin.
* The Life in Hell comic strip was privately printed, beginning in late 1970s, appeared in Wet, 1978, Los Angeles Reader, 1980-86, and L.A. Weekly, 1984--, and has been syndicated by Groening and Caplan to over two hundred periodicals worldwide through Acme Features Syndicate, 1980--. Also creator of "The Life in Hell Fun Calendars."

* "The Simpsons"

* 1990: The Simpsons Xmas Book (adapted from a screenplay by Mimi Pond), HarperCollins.
* 1990: Greetings from the Simpsons, HarperCollins.
* 1991: The Simpsons Rainy Day Fun Book, HarperCollins.
* 1991: (With sister, Maggie Groening) Maggie Simpson's Alphabet Book, HarperCollins.
* 1991: (With Maggie Groening) Maggie Simpson's Book of Animals, HarperCollins.
* 1991: (With Maggie Groening) Maggie Simpson's Book of Colors and Shapes, HarperCollins.
* 1991: (With Maggie Groening) Maggie Simpson's Counting Book, HarperCollins.
* 1991: The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album, HarperCollins.
* 1992: The Simpsons Fun in the Sun Book, HarperCollins.
* 1992: Making Faces with the Simpsons: A Book of Ready-to-Wear Masks, HarperCollins.
* 1993: The Simpsons Ultra-Jumbo Rain-or-Shine Fun Book, HarperCollins.
* 1993: Cartooning with the Simpsons, HarperCollins.
* 1993: Bart Simpson's Guide to Life, HarperCollins.
* 1994: Simpsons Comics Extravaganza, HarperCollins.
* 1995: Simpson's Comics Spectacular, HarperPerennial.
* 1995: Bartman: The Best of the Best!, HarperPerennial.
* 1996: Simpsons Comics Simps-O-Rama, HarperCollins.
* 1996: Simpsons Comics Stike Back, HarperPerennial.
* 1997: The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family, edited by Ray Richmond and Anonia Coffman, HarperPerennial.
* 1997: Simpsons Comics Wingding, HarperCollins.
* 1998: Simpsons Comics Big Bonanza, HarperPerennial.
* 1998: Simpsons Comics on Parade, Bongo Comics Group.
* 1998: The Simpsons Guide to Springfield, HarperCollins.
* 1999: Bart Simpson's Treehouse of Horror: Heebie-Jeebie Hullabaloo, HarperPerennial.
* 2000: Homer's Guide to Being a Man, HarperCollins.
* Creator of Simpsons calendars published by Random House and HarperCollins; creator, Simpsons Illustrated Magazine, 1991-93; creator, "Simpsons Trading Cards," SkyBox, Series I, spring, 1994, Series II, fall, 1994.

* Television Scripts

* 1987-1989: (Contributor of fifty "Simpsons" segments) The Tracy Ullman Show, broadcast on Fox-TV, 1987-1989.
* 1990: (Contributor of animated character dialogue) The Ice Capades Fiftieth Anniversary Special, broadcast on ABC-TV.
* 1990: (With others) The Simpsons, broadcast on Fox-TV, 1990-.
* 1999: (With others) Futurama, broadcast on Fox-TV, 1999--.

* Other

* 1990: (With Steve Vance) Postcards That Ate My Brain, Pantheon.

* Also creator, with Steve Vance, of "Postcards That Ate My Brain" calendars, Portal, 1990, and Futurama Y2Kalender, HarperCollins, 1999.

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